Brief Concepts of the Lesson
In 1848 Frederic Sorrieu a French artist visualized his dream of a world made up of Democratic and Social Republics. As a result nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the Political and mental world of Europe.
Due to the French revolution of 1789 the idea of National state and National identity emerged. Napoleonic Code and reforms carried out in other parts of Europe gave the idea of Social, Economic and Political Liberalism.
Occurrence of revolutions in Brussels and Greece and development of cultural movement in Europe.
Unification of Germany and Italy. The formation of Great Britain.
The allegories of Marianne in France and Germania in Germany were invented by the artists in the 19th century representing the Nation. Thus the female figure became an allegory of the Nation.
The growth of undue Nationalism and Imperialism in Europe paved the way for tension and conflict in Balkans States. Due to rise of Nationalism in Balkans States there was a spirit of struggle for Independence. At the outset the Political atmosphere in Balkans States led Europe to disaster in 1914.
Absolutist – Literally, a government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralised, militarised and repressive.
Plebiscite – A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
Conservatism: – A political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.
Feminist: – Awareness of women’s rights and interests based on the belief of the social, economic and political equality of the genders
Ideology: – System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision
Q1) Write a note on:
a) Giuseppe Mazzini : Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807. His father was a physician and a professor in University. Since his childhood, he had been greatly influenced by nationalistic ideas. As Mazzini grew up,all his inclinations were towards a life full of liberty. He joined a secret society called Carbonari with a view to work for Italy’s unification. He actively participated in a revolt in 1830 and was imprisoned. While in the prison Mazzini realized that the country could not be liberated by following the principles of Carbonari and it was vital to change the Italian youth with sentiments of patriotism and moral character. After his release from the prison he founded a secret society called “Young Italy” in 1831. Membership to this society was given only to those who were under 40 years of age. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. Inspired by his courageous stance many more secret societies sprang up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
The Main contribution of Mazzini to the Italian unification was that he succeeded in impressing on the Italian people that liberation and unification of Italy was not an Impossible dream but a practical ideal capable of realization. He converted a large number of Italian people to his way of thinking and fired them with a missionary spirit to die for the cause.
b) Count Camillo de Cavour: Cavour was born in 1810. His family belonged to the nobility of Piedmont. He received military education and joined the army as an engineer but in 1831 he resigned. He was anxious to play a part in politics , though he saw no chance in a country yet without representative institutions. In the meanwhile, in Piedmont in 1852, victor Emmanuel appointed him as his Prime Minister. He held this position for the rest of his life, with the exception of a few weeks, proving himself a great statesman and incomparable diplomat. He increased the armed force of Piedmont and tried to develop the state economically. He provided leadership to other states of Italy by making Sardinia and Piedmont ideal states so that others may follow it. He was accepted as the representative of entire Italy at the congress of Paris. He convinced the European powers in the course of congress that independence of Italy was essential for maintaining peace in Europe. Thus he succeeded in making independence of Italy an international issue.
Before his death on 6th June 1861 he had unified the whole of Italy under Sardinia with the Ione exception of Papal territories of Rome. The historians bestow upon him the honour of being the “Bismarck of Italy”.
c) The Greek War Of Independence: Greeks had been a part of Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. The growth of liberal nationalist revolutionaries in Europe after the treaty of Vienna sparked off a struggle for independence among the Greeks. This struggle began in 1821 and is known as “Greek War of Independence”. During the 1st six years they fought alone against the Turks. The war was one of the utter atrocity on both sides. The period was made still more wretched by the inability of the Greeks to work together harmoniously. Torn by violent factional quarrels, they were unable to gain any pronounced advantage. Indeed by 1826 it seemed as if they had definitely lost their fight. However they were rescued by foreign powers and by those who were living in exile. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization and mobilized public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim Empire. The English Poet Lord Byron organized funds and later went to fight in the ware, where he died of fever in 1824. Finally “the treaty of Constantinople” of 1832 recognised Greece as independent nation.
d) Frankfurt Parliament: In 1848, the German middle class decided to vote for an all German national assembly and hence came to Frankfurt. Around 831 persons were elected who comprised the national assembly. The assembly decided to organise Frankfurt Parliament in the church of St. Pauls. Thus on 18 May 1848, the famous Frankfurt Parliament was convened. It was decided by the assembly that the German nation would be a monarchy controlled by Parliament and the assembly offered this term to the Prussian king who rejected the terms and proposals of the assembly. Also the middle class were restored to the suppression of the working class and artisans, which led to a division among the liberal minded persons. So the parliament got disrupted and the people came to blows. In order to control the situation, military was called in the assembly hall. Thus, the monarchy and military combined with autocracy, won over the liberal nationalist middle class. This is the reason, Frankfurt Parliament is famous in history as a failure of liberalism and victory of monarchy.
e) Role of Women in Nationalist Struggles: Women played an important role and participated actively in the nationalist struggles in all European States. They were equally responsible for demanding constitutionalism with national unification they had formed their own political associations and were actively participating in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite that they were denied equal voting rights like those of men. In reality the issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movements. in which women fought with men shoulder to shoulder against absolutism. Women had founded Newspapers and nationalist struggle
Q2) What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Ans: Steps taken by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people are:
1) The idea of la Patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the nation of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution
2) A new tricolor flag was introduced for France to replace the royal flag.
3) The estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed as National Assembly.
4) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of nation.
5) A central administrative system was put in place and it formulated laws for all citizens within its territory.
6) Internal customs duties and dues were abolished.
5) A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
3) Regional dialects were discouraged and French as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language.
Q3) Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Ans: Marianne and Germania were the allegories of France and Germany respectively. For France the allegory was christened Marianne which was a popular name which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and republic- the red cap, the tricolour and the cockade. The statues of Marianne were erected in public squares and printed on stamps and coins, to remind the people of national unity.
Germania became the allegory of Germany. She wore a crown of oak leaves as in Germany Oak leaves represent heroism. The broken chains near her feet signify freedom. The breast plate with the eagle symbol that she wears signifies the readiness to fight and the olive branch around her sword signifies her willingness to make peace. The black, red and gold tricolour that she holds was the flag of German nationalists in 1848. The rays of the rising sun symbolises the beginning of a new era.
Q4) Briefly trace the process of German unification?
Ans: The liberal minded middle class of German Confederacy met in the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848, with an objective of establishing Germany as a nation. But they failed miserably. The parliament ended with monarchical, military and aristocratic triumph. Later on, the Chief Minister of Prussia, Otto Von Bismarck led the movement of unity of the German Confederacy. He organized the military wars and mobilized bureaucracy against the countries which had occupied the German states. He fought three wars for over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France, which he won. This completed the process of German unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
Q5) What changes did Napoleon introduce to make efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Ans: The change in the administrative system introduced by Napoleon were included in what came to be known as Civil Code of 1804, or simply the Napoleonic code. Its main features were:
It did away with all privileges based on birth,
It secured equality before law
It secured the right to property.
It abolished the feudal system.
It freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
Guild restrictions were removed
Transport and communication systems were improved
Napoleon tried to improve the economic condition of France. For this purpose he set up Bank of France in 1800 which greatly facilitated trade and commerce. He also paid great attention to the spread of education. His educational policy was based on three principles viz, loyalty to crown, faith in Christianity and dutiful attitude towards the rules of department of education. He set up various primary, secondary and grammar schools. He also set up a university in 1808 for the maintenance of universal standards of education in the country. Napoleon also paid attention to public works and got several roads, bridges and dams etc. constructed. On account of these reforms he is often described as the creator of Modern France
LONG TYPE Q/A:
Q)Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals ?
Ans: The spirit of nationalism and liberalism which was let loose by the French Revolution (1789 – 1815) gave rise to agitations against the arbitrary rule of different European monarchs. The people of subjugated states started national movements to regain their independence. In 1830 and then again in 1848, there were revolutions in many countries of Europe. In the Revolution of 1848, men and women of the liberal middle classes continued to press for their demands for constitutionalism with national unification. As a result of the 1848 Revolution, French ruler Louis Phillipe had to abdicate and a republic was established there.
This victory of the revolutionaries in France now also encouraged the liberals of other states like Germany, Italy, Poland and Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a result, a new kind of a wave started and everywhere the people demanded the creation of nation states based on Parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of press and freedom of association. Despite the active participation of the people in political meetings and demonstration, the liberal movement remained silent on extending political rights to women. It was only in 1928 i.e., almost a century later, when women were given the same voting rights as those of men in England, what do speak of other states.
As far as the economic field is concerned, the liberals demanded freedom of markets, and abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Q) Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe?
Ans: Culture played an important role in creating the idea of nations, art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings. Romanticism, is a cultural movement that sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. The effort of the artists and the poets was to basically create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
Other Romantics such as the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.
Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place, which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
Q) Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Ans: Let’s take the example of the making of Germany and Italy
In the mid of the 18th century in Europe there were no nation states as we know of them today.
- Germany and Italy were divided into kingdoms. Eastern and Central Europe was under autocratic rule with in the territories lived people of diverse cultures.
The Habsburg empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary, for example, was an area having intense diversity of culture and language too. It included the Alpine regions- the Tyrol, Austria and Sudetenland- as well as Bohemia, where the aristocracy was predominantly German speaking. It also included the Italian speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
In Hungary half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke different dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish.
Thus such differences did not easily promote a sense of political unity. The only tie binding them was a common kingdom. Through the 19th century nationalist feeling kept arising but the autocracy and the clergy suppressed most of it.
Q) How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
Ans: The process of unification of Great Britain was different than that of other European nations like Germany & Italy. The following differences can be noted.
In other European nations, unification resulted from a revolution. In Britain no such revolution took place.
Many other European countries had a sense of nation, and as such they struggled to bind themselves into a strong single nation. In contrast there was no British nation prior to 18th century.
The primary of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
The English grew in wealth, importance and power. They were able to extend their influence over the Welsh, Scot and Irish and form themselves into a single nation. It was a long drawn out process. This did not happen in case of Germany and Italy.
Q) Why did nationalist tension emerge in the Balkans?
Ans: The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising of Modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia — Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as Slays. A large part of Balkans was under the control of Ottoman empire. However, in 19th century Ottoman empire had started disintegrating. There were revolts by various nationalities for gaining independence. Though Ottoman empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernization and internal reforms but it could not achieve a great success the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of Ottoman empire made the region very explosive. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence. Balkan people based their claim for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. As the national movements in the Balkans evolved, the region became an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were Fiercely Jealous of each other. Each state hoped to gain more territory at the expense of other. Matter, were further complicated because Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. The big European powers were fighting each other over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. Each power was keen on countering the Role of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area. This intense conflict led to a series of wars in the region. Finally it led to the First World War!